Tuesday, October 2, 2007

Vaccine system

Vaccines are various preparations of antigens derived from specific pathogenic organisms that are rendered non-pathogenic.

They stimulate the immune system and increase the resistance to disease from subsequent infection by the specific pathogen.


The main component of the immune system is the lymphatic system. Small organs called lymph nodes help carry lymph fluid throughout the body.

Lymph fluid contains lymphocytes and other white blood cells and circulates throughout the body.


Chromosomes are composed of a series of genes linked together on a molecule of DNA. If the combination of alleles on a chromosome could not be changed the genetic variability available for natural selection would be severely reduced.

The new combinations of chromosomal alleles are a major source of the genetic variation used in natural selection. Other recombinant based phenomenon include the generation of antibodies and the movement of "jumping genes" to new chromosomal locations.
Recombinant vector vaccines. A vaccine vector or carrier is a weakened bacterium into which harmless parts of genetic material from another disease-causing micro-organism have been inserted.

Different types of vaccines exist

Inactivated vaccines are the most common in aquaculture. They are produced by inactivating the disease-causing micro-organism with chemicals or heat.

Live, attenuated vaccines. To make a live, attenuated vaccine, the disease-causing microorganism is grown under special laboratory conditions that cause it to lose its virulence or disease-causing properties. Intervet’s Aquavac ESC®, a vaccine used against Edwardsiella ictaluri in Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in the USA is an example.

Subunit vaccines are a more modern type of vaccine, developed from antigenic fragments that are able to evoke an immune response. Subunit vaccines can be made by purification of parts of the actual micro-organism or they can be made in the laboratory using genetic engineering techniques. An example is Intervet’s Compact® IPN used against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus infections of salmon in Chile.

1) Norvax® Strep Si
2) Slice* Premix
3) Fujipenin* 40 
4) Aquaflor*-L
5) Aquaflor*
6) Bicomarin* 5% Powder 
7) Isran* Soda
8) Tribrissen* 40% Powder 
9) AquaVac* ERM 
10) AquaVac* ERM Oral 
11) AquaVac* FNMPLUS
12) AquaVac* Furovac 5 
13) AquaVac* Furovac 5 Oral 
14) AquaVac* Furovac 5 Vibrio 
15) AquaVac* Vibrio 
16) AquaVac* Vibrio Oral 
17) AquaVac* Ergosan*