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Monday, October 1, 2007

Probiotic In fish Farming

Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast, however lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common microbes used. (Wikipedia)
Term “probiotic” inevitably referred to gram-positive bacteria associated with the genus Lactobacillus. (Fuller R. A, 1989)
"live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts which confer a beneficial health effect on the host". (FAO
Are generally called the bacteria which can improve the water quality of aquaculture, and (or) inhibit the pathogens in water there by increasing production.
"Probiotics", "Probiont", "Probiotic bacteria" or "Beneficial bacteria" are the terms synonymously used for probiotic bacteria

Types of Bacteria

BIFIDOBACTERIUM

-Normal inhabitants of the human and animal colon.

LACTOBACILLUS
-Normal inhabitants of the human intestine and vagina.

LACTOCOCCUS

-Found in dairy products and is commonly responsible for the souring of milk.

SACCHAROMYCES

-Treat diarrhea associated with antibiotic use.

STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS
-Found in milk and milk products. Used in the production of yogurt.

ENTEROCOCCUS
-A probiotic strain that has been used in the management of diarrheal illnesses.


Benefits of Probiotics


Provide additional nutrients thereby reducing feed costs.
Maintaining desired conditions within the culture environment.
Eliminate the presence of stressors like NH3, NO2, NO3.
For stability and control of microbial populations.
To maintain stable water quality parameters.
To prevent bacterial infection caused by Vibrio and other Eubacterial phatogen and Viral infection.

Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, Kluyveromyces marxianus) and yeast products improving feed attractability, supporting growth by producing vitamins, minerals, nucleic acids and by stimulation of beneficial gut flora.
Improves growth and feed conversion
Improves survival rate of aquatic species.
Reduces stress and disease susceptibility
Reduces the need for expensive drugs

Selection Criteria for Probiotics
Antagonism to pathogens – producing anti-microbial substances like organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, or siderophores.

Must have the capacity to colonize the fish by adhesion, and to produce important substances, like vitamins. –to promote the growth or to protect fish against bacterial pathogens.

The microorganisms should be viable for long periods under storage as well as field conditions.

Probiotic microorganisms have to be non-pathogenic and non-toxic in order to avoid undesirable side-effects when administered to fish. (Ali, 2000)


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Probiotics should only be purchased from reputable companies since a large variation has been found between the label and the contents of the probiotic formulations.

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