Wednesday, October 22, 2008

Leeching Into Commercial Production

KUALA LUMPUR - Leeches could be a money spinner for Malaysia's growing aquaculture sector.

Dr Zaleha Kassim, senior lecturer with the Tropical Aquaculture Institute of University Malaysia Terengganu, believes that breeding leeches for medicinal purposes has commercial potential and both government and the aquaculture sector should be investigating the economics.

"Although many people are not comfortable even hearing the word leech or going near it, the breeding of the filum Annelida specimen from the Hirudinea subclass, can bring in high returns if bred commercially," said Dr Kassim.

She says that enterprises could be explored and set up through Yayasan Tekun Nasional (Tekun)'s business partnership programme and Bank Pertanian, is ready to help those keen to enter the business.

A single, mature leech can command a prices of RM1.80-RM2 while a youngster can bring in 50 sen to RM1. Six types of leeches are found in Malaysia.

Leech breeding is simple and already successful in Western countries including Britain, Germany and Russia. Usually bred for specific purposes, the culture of leeches has benefitted from significant research enabling the organism to be used in modern medicine including the production of pills for heart ailments.

"There, leeches are also bred in hospitals mainly for health problems in sensitive areas like head, eyes, or ears requiring surgery," she said.

Live leeches are used to suck up the blood of patients and later on the blood is drawn to analyse the possible ailments of the patient concerned.

"In Western countries, leech based medicinal treatments have been patented and commercialised, but in Malaysia we have yet to reach such a level, and that is why there is a need for extensive research and development," said Dr Zaleha, who has been doing research on leeches the past two years.

Commercial Involvement
There are now three or four companies involved in the production of leech based oil for health purposes,although there is strong belief thatfuture developedt will encourageotherr 'spin-off'businessess.

The health property found in a leech is called Hirudin, a type of protein that prevents blood clotting, found in the worm's saliva.

Dr Zaleha said the breeding of leeches required minimum care, much like breeding fish in an aquarium, whether inside or externally and whether in a concrete pond or natural pond.

It can be fed the blood of cows or goats every week or once every two weeks and its breeding is fast, Dr Zaleha said.

Dr Zaleha also said that leeches are also used in the production of cosmetics and among the countries already in this industry were China, Thailand and South Korea.

TheFishSite News Desk

video Ternakan Lintah komersial

Saturday, June 21, 2008

why do they do all this stuff?

I almost threw up when I saw his mouth full of leeches.

How to remove leech from body properly

Removal of the leech

Salt, salt water or vinegar will cause an actively sucking leech to vomit and fall off. A leech will usually fall off after 20 minutes of attachment without any treatment.

DO NOT pull the leech off as the skin may be torn and ulceration may follow or parts of the jaw may remain and set up infection. Applying heat to the leech (e.g. applying a hot coal or lit cigarette) may result in burns to the patient so is not recommended.

Wash with soap and water.

Apply a cold pack if there is significant pain or swelling.

Apply pressure if there is bleeding from the bite.

Seek medical attention if the area becomes infected or if a wound or ulcer develops.

Even if you have never been bitten by a leech before, watch for the following symptoms, they may indicate a serious allergic or anaphylactic reaction, which requires urgent medical attention:

* red blotches on the skin or an itchy rash over the body
* swelling in parts of the body away from the bitten area, especially the lips and around the eyes
* feeling faint, light-headed or dizzy
* breathing difficulties: wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness

Biologist Jörg Graf researches bacteria in the bellies of bloodsuckers.

Many patients these days suffer from immune system deficiencies. Thus it is important for doctors to know which bacteria live in the blood of a leech before they decide whether to use leeches as medical treatment. It is also important to know which bacteria are in there which prevent infection. As with all living creatures, leeches are not sterile; and are the home of many bacteria. If a leech is squeezed as it is removed from the skin, it may regurgitate into the fresh wound. This can lead to infection. As leech therapy is used more and more, the need for studies of the bacteria in the bellies of the beasts is becoming more and more important.

Until recently it was assumed that leech stomach bacteria were all aerobic; however, new studies point to a richer array of bacterial dwellers. Jörg Graf, a German biologist and researcher at the University of Connecticut, has been studying leeches intensively for years. His team has succeeded in verifying and breeding another breed of bacteria. The new bacteria are anaerobic and propagate only in oxygen-free chambers.

biotherapy with leeches

Patients with arthritis of the knee joint are in constant pain and sometimes even have to take morphine. The regular use of leeches could free 60% of these individuals from pain for at least a few months. To treat such a patient with leeches the doctor places three to 12 of these little vampires on the painful sites and waits until, after about a half an hour, the animals are satiated and fall off.
Are leeches just disgusting or are they useful?

Tuesday, June 10, 2008

Therapy with leeches/Blutegel

she's brave..

Leeches Cure(from Indian FIles)

leeches suck your blood...but some believe that could be healthy for you

Monday, June 9, 2008

Lintah di Malaysia

lintah akan menghisap darah pemangsa nya selama beberapa jam dan akan jatuh setelah kenyang.beratnya boleh mencapai 5 kali ganda dari berat badan asal lintah.

lintah mempunyai badan yang boleh memanjang dan mengecilkan badannya untuk membolehkannya keluar daripada tempat yang sempit.

Tuesday, May 13, 2008

Interesting Note

1. Leeches aren’t entirely pesky and repulsive. Orang Asli natives swear by leeches as effective baits for fishing in jungle streams. Fast river whoopers like tengas, kelah and sebarau love leeches.

2. The Malaysian native leech Hirudinea medicinalis is the only kind approved by U.S Food and Drug Agency (FDA) as medical device for blood-letting and biotherapy.

3. One microgram of pure Hirudin, a chemical only found in leech saliva, inhibits about 10 U of human thrombin. It is the most potent anticoagulant in nature and is currently experimented for blood thinning application for artery blockage patients.

Tuesday, May 6, 2008


What do they look like?
Leeches are segmented worms with suction cups at each end. Their bodies are flattened, much wider than they are thick. They are usually dark colored, often brown or sometimes black or dark green. Some species have no markings, others have spots and stripes. The smallest leeches grow no more than 5 mm, but some big species may get to be more than 25 cm long. Many leech species have one or more pairs of eyes visible on the top of their front end. Leech species that suck blood have sharp teeth. Predatory species may have teeth, or may have only crushing jaws.

How do they grow?
Leeches lay eggs in cocoons, and the babies that hatch out look and behave like little adults. They don't change much as they grow, they just get bigger. Leeches that live in habitats that freeze or dry out during part of the year bury themselves in mud and stay dormant until the habitat improves. Leech growth rate is strongly affected by temperature and food supply. Most species can mature in a few weeks or months if conditions are good.

How do they reproduce?
In most species, each leech has both male and female sex organs, and can both lay eggs and give sperm to another worm. After mating, each worm produces several cocoons containing eggs. The cocoons are protected with a tough layer of protein, and contain one or a few eggs (depending on the species). Most species attach their cocoon to vegetation or debris underwater, but a few put them in damp soil. Leeches reproduce and grow at very different rates, depending on which species they are, the amount of food they get, and the temperature of the habitat they live in. Most grow faster in warmer temperatures.

Key reproductive features:seasonal breeding; year-round breeding; oviparous.

Some freshwater leeches bury their cocoons and then guard them and keep a stream of water flowing over them so the eggs can get more oxygen. Some species attach their cocoons to their bodies, and carry the eggs with them for protection. A few carry their hatchlings with them too, until the little leeches have their first meal.

Parental investment:no parental involvement; male parental care; female parental care.

How long do they live?
Some leeches complete their life cycle in a few months, but many can live for several years.

How do they behave?
All leeches can crawl, and some are good swimmers. They search for prey by following the scent or touch of the animals they want to eat. When they first detect food, they extend their bodies and hold very still, probably to carefully sense their prey.

Tuesday, April 8, 2008

Origin Of Our Leech

The origin from our medicinal leeches
Our medicinal leeches are grown up in turkey ponds and lakes in national protected areas. In these areas no humans reside. It is certified by the exporter of the leeches that those leeches did not have any human contact. The imported leeches are kept in quarantine for six months, which represents an additional measure of safety.

Reproduction of leeches
So that itself the leech reproducing can, a remaining alike water level is necessary. As to the hermaphrodites belonging worm, the leech fertilize themselves usually mutually. Fertilization takes place between April until Octobers (depending upon temperature). The leech puts its down up to 30 eggs into kokons into the damp bank earth, in order to protect it against draining. Within 6 weeks the young leech slip are at this time the approx. 16 mm long out of the eggs. For therapeutic purposes, the leech can be used only after approximately 4 years.

With optimal attitude the leech up to 20 can become years old. Attained full growth the leech a length up to 20 cm and a weight of up to 30 g.

Nutrition leech
The young leech nourishes itself of the blood of small water animals e.g. frogs, toads or fish. The fortpflanzungsfaehigkeit of the leechs improves however with the blood of warmbluetigen animals. With this blood the leech becomes in former times sex ripe. In addition the leech thereby puts also more eggs in its kokons.

Once arrived on the skin of the landlord (= victim), the leech looks for a suitable place for biting. With the front end it searches thereby gropingly for the suitable until place. The rear suction cup is fixed thereby. If not finding the correct until place yet, repeating themselves the procedure by the rear suction cup is solved and afterwards into a new position is brought. If the leech found the optimal place, he holds on with the rear suction cup in the proximity of the until place and begins themselves with his dreistrahligem Kiefer into the skin to saw. The bite is thus expressed pain-poor for comparing with an insect bite and. Until today could not be proven whether the leech thereby a locally effective anaesthetic used. During the suction process the leech separates a secretion into the wound. The blood vessels are extended by the among other things histamine-similar substance. Sucking the leechs is facilitated by the Hirudin, which he separates from his salivary glands into the wound. The Hirudin keeps the blood liquid, by preventing the blood clotting. Further existing substances have such as Calin, Hyaluronidase, Egline, Kollagenase, Apyrase, Destabilase and Piyavit a coagulating and a entzuendungshemmende effect in the secretion.

Food intake takes approx. 30 minutes. The weight of the leechs is increased by a multiple. As soon as it is full releases the leech automatically. The wound bleeds still some hours after. Thus the blutverlust is trebled doubled to. After the suction process the leech is only after one week again capable of schlaengelnden swimming movements.

The leech stores the sucked blood over months in its stomach and digests it within one period of 1.5 years. The blood is digested within one period by 5 to 18 months. However the leech is already after some months again suctionwilling.

Review fisheries site at Blogging Fusion Blog Directory

Anatomy from the medicinal Leech (hirudo medicinalis)

The medicinal leech (lat. hirudo medicinalis) is related as worm to the earthworm. The leech became smaller an oval cross section at the two body ends. At the two ends is in each case a suction cup. The suction cup in the back, serves the leech only for holding. The suction cup contains the mouth opening in front.

In the mouth the jaw those is appropriate for 3 approx. 80 lime denticles has. The three radially arranged jaw have approx. 80 fine lime teeth. At each suction cup is a nerve ring. The body is flattened and consists of 33 segments. The back is dark green and has at both sides ever 3 brown longitudinal strips. The leech does not possess a brain.

For surviving the leech needs a damp environment, since it would drain otherwise. In the time of sheding its skin, the leech is unpowered because of this work.

In the water the leech induces itself like a dolphin, ashore uses the leech its suction cups to progressive movement. The leech supervises the water movements in the water, to which it recognizes potential victims.

SLaid copy from Google.untuk Rujukan Diri Sendiri

Class Hirudinea

This class includes the 500 species of leeches, flattened, predacious or parasitic annelids equipped with suckers used for creeping. Leeches range in length from about 1/2 in. to 8 in. (1 cm-20 cm); most are under 2 in. (5 cm) long. They are commonly black, brown, green, or red, and may have stripes or spots. Leeches are primarily freshwater annelids, but some live in the ocean and some in moist soil or vegetation. The majority of leeches are predators on small invertebrates; most swallow their prey whole, but some suck the soft parts from their victims. Some leeches are parasites rather than predators, and suck the body fluids of their victims without killing them. The distinction is not sharp, as many predatory leeches take blood meals on occasion.

Leech Anatomy

Leeches are the only annelids with a fixed number (34) of body segments; each segment has secondary subdivisions known as annuli. A clitellum, less conspicuous than that of oligochaetes, is present; there are no parapodia. A leech has a small anterior sucker and a larger posterior one; the leech crawls by moving the anterior sucker forward, attaching it, and drawing up the posterior sucker. Most leeches can swim by rapid undulations of the body, using well-developed muscles of the body wall.

The coelom differs from that of other annelids in that it is largely filled in with tissue. Coelomic fluid is contained in a system of sinuses, which in some leeches functions as a circulatory system; there is a tendency in this group toward the loss of true blood vessels. The blood of some leeches is red. In others the blood lacks oxygen-carrying pigments and is therefore colorless; the oxygen dissolved directly in the blood is sufficient for respiration. Gas exchange occurs through the body surface of most leeches, although many fish-parasitizing leeches have gills.

The sense organs consist of sensory cells of various types, including photoreceptor cells, scattered over the body surface. There are also from 2 to 10 eyes, consisting of clusters of photoreceptor cells and located toward the front of the body.

Leech Predation and Digestion

Many leeches have a proboscis used for swallowing the prey or for sucking its fluids; others have jaws for biting. Many parasitic leeches are able to parasitize a wide variety of hosts. Most of the marine and some of the freshwater leeches are fish parasites. The medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is one of a group of aquatic bloodsucking leeches with jaws. Another group of jawed bloodsuckers is terrestrial; these leeches live in damp tropical vegetation and drop onto their mammalian prey. Most parasitic leeches attach to the host only while feeding; a single meal may be 5 or 10 times the weight of the leech and provide it with food for several months. The digestive tract of bloodsuckers produces an anticoagulant, hirudin, which keeps the engorged blood from clotting. A few leeches attach permanently to the host, leaving only to reproduce. Predatory leeches are active at night and hide by day.

Leech Reproduction

Like the oligochaetes, leeches are hermaphroditic and cross-fertilizing, although fertilization is internal. In some species the sperm are enclosed in sacs, called spermatophores, that are attached to the outside of the partner; the sperm pass through the body wall to the ovaries, where the eggs are fertilized. In other species the sperm are not enclosed and are transferred directly into the body of the partner by copulation. A courtship display is seen among some leeches at the time of mating. The fertilized eggs are deposited in a cocoon, secreted by the clitellum; the cocoon is buried in mud or affixed to submerged objects. The young emerge as small copies of the adults.


See R. O. Brinkhurst and B. G. Jamieson, Aquatic Oligochaeta of the World (1972); K. Fauchald, The Polychaete Worms (1977); R. W. Pennak, Fresh-water Invertebrates of the United States (3d ed. 1989).

Tabiat dan Pembiakan lintah


Many leeches swim through the water with snakelike motions. They release their grip with the tail sucker and push off from a rock or plant, before wriggling their body back and forth. Species living on land move along the ground like an inchworm, stretching and shortening their bodies by using the suckers on both ends.

Leeches must mate to reproduce. Mating occurs when a leech attaches a sperm packet in the body of its mate. Some species have corresponding male and female organs that allow the placement of sperm directly into their mate's female reproductive organs. Fertilization (FUR-teh-lih-ZAY-shun) occurs inside the female's body. As the cocoon passes over the female reproductive organs, the developing eggs, or embryos (EHM-bree-ohz), are deposited inside.

The cocoons are either left in the soil, or attached to the bodies of other animals. Young leeches resemble the adult when they hatch. Fish leeches attach their egg cases to the bodies of crustaceans (krus-TAY-shuns), or water-dwelling animals with soft bodies covered by hard shells, such as shrimp or lobster. When fishes eat infested crustaceans, the young leeches attach themselves inside the fishes' mouth cavity. Some leeches carry their eggs in a clear sack under their body. When the adult finds a host, like a turtle or frog, the young hatch and also attach themselves to the host.

Tuesday, March 25, 2008

Lintah Pada masa Kini

LINTAH kini mengikut jejak lebah dan gamat yang mempunyai nilai komersial untuk dijadikan pelbagai produk berkaitan kesihatan dan bahan dalam kosmetik.Lintah kini diternak secara komersial selepas menyedari potensi besar lintah, terutama dalam industri kosmetik di luar negara.Permintaan tinggi terhadap lintah di Amerika Syarikat dan Eropah menyebabkan perlu ada kaedah penghasilan lintah yang sistematik.Sebelum ini, bekalan diperoleh dengan cara mencari lintah liar, tetapi cara itu tidak lagi sesuai kerana tidak konsisten, selain habitat lintah semakin berkurangan berikutan amalan penggunaan racun di sawah.Dua kaedah boleh digunakan, pembiakan secara semula jadi dalam kolam tanah dan bekas akuarium, tetapi paling berkesan adalah kolam tanah.Keluasan kolam adalah kira-kira 111 meter persegi, manakala kedalaman 0.6 meter. Lintah juga boleh diternak dalam bekas plastik, tetapi tidak menyamai habitat semula jadi dan dibimbangi boleh menjejaskan kualiti haiwan itu.Tempoh matang sebelum diambil dari kolam adalah antara empat hingga enam bulan. Sepanjang tempoh itu, lintah diberi makan dua kali seminggu.Dengan pendapatan lumayan, iaitu kira-kira RM60,000 dalam tempoh enam bulan bagi 10 kolam saiz 6 X 18.18 meter, kini ada kira-kira 500 vendor di seluruh negara.Pensyarah Institut Akuakultur Tropika, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Dr Zaleha Kassim, berkata penggunaan lintah dalam perubatan bukan perkara baru kerana antara 1830-1850, haiwan ini digunakan dengan meluas.Antara kelebihan lintah ialah mempunyai hirudin, iaitu bahan antipembeku yang kini dimajukan sebagai bahan anti pembekuan sistemik.“Kajian Profesor K Diakonov pada 1809 mendapati darah manusia yang dihisap dan berada dalam perut lintah tidak membeku, manakala keadaan sel darah merah adalah baik. Penyelidikan Highcraft pada 1884 mendapati ekstrak lintah menghalang darah dalam tabung uji membeku dan ini memulakan penemuan hirudin,” katanya.Katanya, lintah kini banyak digunakan dalam pembedahan plastik, manakala mengikut laporan, antara kegunaan lintah termasuk merawat mata dan telinga tengah yang bengkak.

cari duit dari internet...

Buat Duit Main Myspace

Friday, March 14, 2008

bekalan benih n induk

( gambar telur lintah secara dekat)

untuk mendapatkan induk n benih,supplier o pembeli
boleh sertakan email n number contact di sini.

Monday, February 4, 2008

gambar Lintah

Wednesday, January 23, 2008


The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has for the first time cleared the commercial marketing of leeches for medicinal purposes.
Leeches can help heal skin grafts by removing blood pooled under the graft and restore blood circulation in blocked veins by removing pooled blood.

From U.S. FDA:
FDA Clears Medicinal Leeches for Marketing

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has for the first time cleared the commercial marketing of leeches for medicinal purposes.

Leeches can help heal skin grafts by removing blood pooled under the graft and restore blood circulation in blocked veins by removing pooled blood.

Leeches have been used as an alternative treatment to blood-letting and amputation for several thousand years. They reached their height of medicinal use in the mid- 1800's. Today they are used in medicine throughout the world as tools in skin grafts and reattachment surgery.

Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) are bloodsucking aquatic animals that live in fresh water.

Ricarimpex SAS, a French firm, is the first company to request and receive FDA clearance to market leeches as medical devices. The firm has been breeding leeches for 150 years. They are handled in a certified facility that tracks each lot.

In considering the firm's application, FDA reviewed the published literature on the use of leeches in medicine and evaluated safety data provided by the firm. FDA also reviewed information on how the leeches are fed, their environment, and the personnel who handle them.

FDA determined that leeches are medical devices because they meet the definition of a medical device under the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act. Under the law, a medical device is an article intended to diagnose, cure, treat, prevent, or mitigate a disease or condition, or to affect a function or structure of the body, that does not achieve its primary effect through a chemical action, and is not metabolized.

Leech Info From China

蚂蟥身体略呈扁筒状,体节数目一定。胚胎是34节,因前后有一部分体节形成吸盘,故成体可见27节,1节之中有若干环纹(3~5个或更多),叫作体环。蚂 蟥的前后吸盘,用作吸附在临时寄主之上,或用来在固着物上面行走(蚂蟥在固着物上爬行时是前后吸盘交替吸着固着物)。在口吸盘的后面,常有若干小眼点。有 些蚂蟥,身体两侧还有成对的鳃,如我国的扬子江鳃蛭。它们一般没有刚毛,有生殖带。
宽体金线蛭Whitmania pigra(Whitman),又名宽身蚂蟥、宽水蛭、马蛭。
体长大,扁平,略成纺锤形。成体体长一般6~13厘米,宽可达1.3~2厘米,大的体宽可达3.5厘米。背面通常为暗绿色,具5条由黄色和黑色两种斑纹相 间形成的纵纹。侧面下端各有一条黄色纵带。腹部淡黄色,杂有许多不规则的暗绿色斑点。体环数107,生殖带明显,占15环;雄生殖孔在33~34环沟间, 雌生殖孔在38~39环沟间。前吸盘小,口内有颚,颚上有两行钝齿板。

本种取食螺、蚌类,在浙江俗称“田螺嘬”。冬季在泥土中蛰伏越冬,在长江流域大约3月底或4月上旬出土。但如温度尚低,出土的金线蛭常躲在沟边由枯草和淤 泥缠结成的泥团内。天气转暖后,它们在田边活动,有时也伸展身体,静伏于水沟内,头端迎着进水水流。产卵期在5月,有的可持续至6月中旬。
选择排灌方便,避风向阳处建池。池底宽一般3~5米,池口宽6-8米(坡度月1:1.55),水深1米,长度一般50米以上,一般以地势而定。池四周靠池 壁用富含腐殖质的疏松沙质壤土建1米宽的平台,便于水蛭打洞产茧,中间为水面,平台高出水面约10~20厘米,平台应保持湿润。池子设进、排水口,池底可 放些树枝,供水蛭栖息。一般要设一年生幼蛭池,二年生幼蛭池,三年生种蛭池,四年生种蛭池等。池边要留草,池中有水草(菹草等)和藻类,每隔2米用瓦正反 相叠从池底直至平台,一组两摞,供水蛭栖息及躲避高温、强光。高温季节可考虑架设防晒网遮荫。池上口斜竖防逃网,可选用孔较粗的(约13目)白色尼龙纱。
购买种蛭,最好到专业养殖场购买,也可人工捕捉野生种驯化作种。人工捕捉野生种可考虑在清晨、傍晚或晚上直接用手捕捉或用小捞子捞捕,也可考虑放置瓦或竹 桶等诱捕,量大时可用鱼网捕捞。要选择健壮粗大,活泼好动,用手触之即迅速缩为一团的三年以上(已经历两个冬天者)的成蛭作为种蛭,一般要求单个在 18~20克左右。每亩投种蛭30kg。一般繁殖两个季节,即应将种蛭淘汰。
产卵茧期,应尽量保持安静,不要惊动正在产卵的成蛭,以免出现空茧。孵化期间,应尽量避免在平台上走动,以免踩破卵茧。平台面要保持湿润,可覆盖一层水 草;若碰到下雨天气要疏通溢水口,水面不能没过平台,保持差距3厘米左右。幼蚂蟥孵出后两三天内主要靠卵黄维持生活,三天后即可采食。初孵出的幼蛭主要吸 食河蚬、螺蛳的体液,在一个河蚬的体内,会钻入10~100条幼蚂蟥。幼蚂蟥生长迅速,半个月后,平均增长达15毫米以上。
1.水烫 将捕捉的蚂蝗,集中放入盆器中,将开水倒入,以热水淹没蚂蝗2~3指为宜,20分钟左右待蚂蝗死后,即捞出洗净放在干净的地方晒干。如果第一次没烫死,可将没死的另烫一次。
2.酒闷法 将高度白酒倒入盆中,能将蚂蟥淹没即可。然后加盖密封半小时左右,蚂蝗即醉死,再用清水洗净晒干即可。
3.碱烧法 将食用碱粉撒入器皿内,用双手将蚂蝗上下翻动,并边翻边揉撮,在碱粉作用下,蚂蝗逐渐收缩变小,最后冲洗干净晒干即可。
4.石灰处理 将水蛭埋入石灰中20分钟,筛去石灰,晒干或烘干。
5.烟丝处理 将蚂蝗埋入烟丝中,约半小时后即死亡,洗净晒干即可。
6.生晒法 将捕得的蚂蝗用铁丝穿起,悬吊阳光下直接暴晒。

水蛭是一类名贵的中药材,世界上许多国家自古以来就有把蚂蟥入药的习惯。仅国内每年就需数千吨,日本自1988年就开始从我国进口。南韩转口贸易。随着化 肥、农药的广泛使用,以及河流、湖泊等的污染,加之近些年对蚂蟥的掠夺性捕捉。野生资源日益减少,远远不能满足用药需要,货源奇缺,有价无货。蚂蟥生命力 强,繁殖快,易于饲养管理。人工养殖规模可大可小,投资少,效益高,以宽体金线蛭为例,一亩水面养殖,可收获成品150~200千克,(第一年可收获一部 分)价值上万元,是农村致富的一条好门路。
在应用方面,我国古代即用活水蛭吮吸脓血,治疗体表疾病,如痛肿、丹毒等,疗效确切。近代有用鲜水蛭用于眼科的报导。即用活水蛭3条,放于6毫升生蜂蜜 中,6小时后取浸液装瓶备用。每日点2次,每次1~2滴,对结膜炎有效,医治角膜瘢痕云翳,各型内障眼病,玻璃体混浊等均获得良好疗效。现今以蚂蟥为主要 原料制成的中成药,已投入大量生产,且供不应求。中国中医研究院西苑医院、中国中医研究院基本理论研究所与吉林省公主岭市红光制药厂用宽体金线蛭干品共同 研究成功一种治疗出血性中风的中药现代化口服制剂——脑血康。此药具有强烈的活血化瘀、破血散结作用,经国内11家著名医疗单位临床试用,有效率高达 90%,无毒副作用。其药理作用在于改善微循环,改善脑部缺氧和降低血压作用,而且能加速纤维蛋白溶解,促进血肿的溶化和吸收,以解除颅内占位性病变所致 的损害,有利于神经功能的恢复。此药主要适用于治疗中风、半身不遂、口眼歪斜、舌强言蹇,更适用于高血压性脑出血后的脑内血肿和脑血栓等。中国人民解放军 二六四医院用本种水蛭研制成活血通脉胶囊,由山西云中制药厂生产出抗动脉粥样硬化的新药。此外,沈阳康达制药厂还用此蛭制成脑血栓片在市场上销售,哈尔滨 鹤岗圣尔药业有限公司以水蛭为主要原料研制出“逐瘀通脉胶囊”,97年被正式批准为国家级新药。
蚂蟥全世界约有五百多种,我国也有近百种。分布十分广泛,除了生活在热带丛林里的山蛭和暂时离开水体到陆地上去取食的种类外,大多数生活在淡水中,以在咸 水里生活的最少,其种群数量又受到环境中理化因子和生物因子影响。所谓医学蛭,是指与人类生活有着更加直接关系的那些种类,它们都属于无吻蛭目。这些种类 的颚都具有齿,通过吸食人、各种哺乳动物及软体动物的血液或体液生存。医蛭类与人类的直接关系可分为对人类有利方面和对人类有害的方面。
我国古代医书中记载有利用蚂蟥治疗多种疾病,在《神农本草经》中谓其“逐恶血、瘀血、月闭、破血症积聚,无子,利水道”。明朝李时珍在《本草纲目》中对水 蛭在内科方面的药效作了详细的说明并记述了不少的民间处方。医圣张仲景用其祛邪扶正,治疗“瘀血”、“水结”之症,显示了其独特的疗效。后世张锡纯赞此 药:“存瘀血而不伤新血,纯系水之精华生成,于气分丝毫无损,而血瘀默然于无形,真良药也”。公元1500年前,埃及人首创医蛭放血疗法,到上世纪初,欧 洲人更迷信医蛭能吮去人体内的病血,不论头痛脑热概用医蛭进行吮血治疗。后来随着医学的发展,这种带有迷信色彩的治疗方法才逐渐被放弃了。然而近年来,医 蛭在医学上的新用途正受到人们广泛的关注。整形外科医生利用医蛭消除手术后血管闭塞区的瘀血,减少坏死发生,从而提高了组织移植和乳房形成等手术的成功 率。医蛭在再植或移植手指、脚指、耳朵、鼻子时,利用医蛭吸血,可使静脉血管通畅,大大提高了手术的成功率。这是由于医蛭吸血时其唾液腺分泌抗凝剂水蛭 素,以及扩张血管的类组胺物质。1987年,中国科学院水生动物研究所水蛭课题组与湖北医学附属第三医院骨科协作,在我国首先应用医蛭治疗断指再植术后瘀 血,成功数例,受到国内、外广泛的好评。医蛭唾液中含有的多种活性物质正受到各国科学家的广泛重视,已成为资源动物利用的一个热门话题。1984年美国水 蛭专家索耶博士在英国威尔士斯旺西创立了世界第一家水蛭养殖场兼生化药物公司,该公司生产的水蛭素和透明质酸酶已销往欧美各国及日本,并且也出售了数万条 活的医用水蛭。最近,在美国的查尔斯顿建成了另一家医用水蛭养殖场;法国和德国已将合成水蛭素的基因转移到酵母菌和大肠杆菌中,并利用遗传工程的方法生产 廉价的水蛭素。可见水蛭素的需要和生产正在扩大。
溶解血栓的作用,即中医所说的活血化瘀作用。因此 ,在处理诸如败血休克,动脉粥样硬化、脑血管梗塞、心血管病、高血压、眼科以及多种缺少抗凝血酶的疾病方面,显示出巨大的优越性和广阔的前景。
我国中医用水蛭治疗中风、风湿痹痛、淋闭、肝脾肿大、闭经、截瘫以及心绞痛等,取了满意的效果。美国生物化学家从一种水蛭唾液中分离出一种有助于抑制癌细 胞生长的蛋白,它能抑制癌细胞胶原酶的活性。前苏联生理学家在医蛭唾液中发现具有生物活性的物质——前列腺素,这是一种参与从出生到死亡所有生命过程的重 要物质,可以用来制造一系列具有优良性能的药物。据粗略统计,已有美国、德国、英国、法国、日本、前苏联和匈牙利等近10个国家公布了医蛭制剂研究的专 利,我国在这方面的研究正处于起始阶段,尚无医蛭制剂的生产和销售。我国人口众多,又有着丰富的医蛭资源可以利用,因此很有必要开发和利用医蛭唾液中的各 种活性物质,也有可能在国外研究的基础上尽快将医蛭各类制剂投入国内、外市场。
医学蛭类又可被认为是对人类有害的动物,它们在野外侵袭各种家畜以及正在作业的农民、工人和边防战士,吮吸他们的血液,使伤口流血不止,易被细菌感染,引 起溃烂和化脓。在吸血过程中蛭类还可以传播疾病,一些种类可以作为皮肤病病原体和血液寄生虫的传播者或中间宿主。内侵袭吸血蛭给人类和家畜的健康带来更大 的危害,它们有的随着人畜喝生水而进入鼻腔、咽侯、气管及声带部位营寄生生活;有的在人畜涉水或游泳时进入尿道、阴道或子宫。因此,如何防除吸血蛭,对我 国广大农村以及热带、亚热带地区的橡胶种植业、畜牧业和边疆军民生活、工作都具有很大的意义。

Leech Farming Method






2、冬季来临,气温低于10℃以下时,医蛭类开始进入水边较松软的土壤中越冬,潜伏的深度一般为15~25厘米。气温10℃~13℃时开始出土。通常在不到 11℃的水体里水蛭不能繁殖。如把它放在43℃热水里它就要离水外逃,水温升至45.5℃时,水蛭沉底蜷曲,48℃时死亡,放回清水也不会再活。







水蛭为雌雄同体,每条蚂蟥都可产卵繁殖, 于3月下旬至4月(长江流域,下同)产卵茧,卵茧产于泥土中,一般产卵茧1~4个,每个茧内幼蚂蟥数为13~35个,多数20个左右,每个蚂蟥一次可繁殖60~80条。幼蚂蟥于6月大量出现,生长迅速,在孵化后一个月内,平均增长20毫米以上,到9 、 10月间长得与成体难以区分。以早春放为宜。早春放养十月即可长成、加工出售。



选择避风向阳、排灌方便处建池。池四周埂高1.8米,水深1 米,面积大小 应根据饲养量而定。一般每亩水面可放养幼蛭6~10万条。池对角设进水口和排水口。为便于水蛭的栖息和产卵,池底可放些不规则的石块或树枝,水池之中应建高出水平面20厘米的土台5~8个,每个平台1平方米左右。 池埂还要设防逃沟,用砖砌成,沟宽12厘米,高8厘米, 下雨时用密网栏住或在沟内撒些石灰,可防逃逸。




金钱蛭主要取食螺类、蚯蚓等无脊椎动物及哺乳动物的血液,人工饵养天然饲料以来源广泛的螺蛳为主,辅以蚯蚓、昆虫的幼虫等,人工饲料主要是各种动物血。螺蛳可以一次性投放,即在养殖池内放养一定数量的螺蛳(每亩 25 千克左右),让其自然繁殖,供蚂蟥自由取食。投放螺蛳不宜过多,以免与蚂蟥争夺空间,动物血每星期喂一次,对蚂蟥的迅速生长有显著的作用。把猪、牛、羊等动物鲜血凝块放入池中,每隔5米左右一块,蚂蟥嗅到腥味后很快就会聚拢来, 吸饱后自行散去。要及时清除凝血残渣,以免污染水质







幼苗期即每年的4月中旬至5月下旬,向水面泼洒猪血或牛血,供小水蛭吸食,5月下旬后向水池中投放活的河蚌或田螺供水蛭吸食。每667平方米水面投放250 克重的河蚌100只左右。投放量少,不够水蛭吸食,投放量多,易导致缺氧或与水蛭争夺空间,每半月向水面泼洒猪血或牛血一次,供水蛭吸食或河蚌滤食,每2 个月补投河蚌30只。












水蛭多在浅土或枯草树叶下越冬,很易因突变的寒冷天气受冻而死。为此,越冬时在池边 近水处加盖一些草苫或玉米秸秆等,并适量提高池水的水位。


Penternak lintah dari Kampung Jaya Gading, Kuantan, Pahang, Norazlan Abdul Rahman, 37, berkata lintah kini menjadi ternakan komersial berikutan permintaan tinggi untuk ramuan kosmetik dan perubatan.

“Kebanyakan lintah yang diternak di negara ini dieksport ke luar negara yang dikenal pasti sebagai pasaran berpotensi haiwan ini.
“Ada dua jenis lintah ternak, iaitu lintah perut hijau dan perut perang yang mendapat permintaan tinggi di pasaran apabila kedua-duanya mampu mencecah harga antara RM40 hingga RM60 satu kilogram (kg) mengikut saiz,” katanya.
Norazlan berkata, lintah semakin mendapat tempat dalam amalan perubatan moden kerana cecair yang dikeluarkan daripada kelenjar liurnya ketika haiwan itu menghisap darah didapati mampu menghalang darah daripada membeku, manakala histamin pada lintah mampu membesarkan pembuluh darah, sekali gus melancarkan peredaran darah dan oksigen.

Ternakan lintah tidak memerlukan kolam luas seperti ikan, sebaliknya memadai dengan kolam bersaiz 20 kaki lebar dan panjang 60 kaki.
Dasar kolam pula perlu dihampar dengan plastik dan dimasukkan pasir halus untuk haiwan itu bersembunyi.

“Plastik dan pasir diletakkan dalam kolam supaya lintah tidak hilang ketika waktu menuainya yang mencapai tempoh matang ketika berusia empat bulan dan boleh mula bertelur.

“Haiwan ini bertelur dalam air dan seekor lintah boleh mempunyai kedua-dua organ jantan dan betina. Lintah induk membawa anak dari telur di dalam kantung yang terbentuk melalui lipatan permukaan bawah badannya. Kadangkala anaknya melekat di bawah badan induk,” katanya.
Menurut Norazlan, telur yang terhasil akan terlekat pada objek di dalam air seperti tunggul kayu dan tumbuhan akuatik. Oleh itu, dalam kolam ternakan, batu-bata disusun empat segi membentuk petak sebagai tempat mengumpul telur.
Bagi bekalan makanan haiwan ini yang menjadikan darah sebagai bahan makanan utama, Norazlan menyediakan kira-kira 30 hingga 40 kg belut untuk 100 kg lintah dan selepas makan darah dengan secukupnya, ia boleh hidup untuk beberapa bulan tanpa mendapatkan darah lagi.
“Lintah boleh membesar enam hingga 10 kali ganda saiz asalnya selepas menghisap darah dan induknya boleh menghasilkan 300 hingga 500 benih lintah sekali bertelur.
“Namun, bekalan benih sukar diperoleh berikutan permintaan tinggi, selain negara masih kekurangan pengusaha lintah. Tidak hairan harga benih lintah boleh mencecah sehingga RM300 satu kg,” katanya yang juga lulusan ijazah dalam Sains Kimia dari Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM).

Selepas lebih lima bulan mengusahakan ternakan lintah, kini Norazlan boleh berpuas hati dengan hasilnya yang menunggu masa untuk dituai.
“Pada awal perancangan ternakan lintah, saya ingin mengeksportnya saja menerusi bantuan syarikat yang menganjurkan kursus berkenaan. Namun, kini saya mula meneroka peluang lebih luas apabila ingin menghasilkan sendiri minyak lintah.
“Penghasilan minyak ini dijalankan dengan kerjasama jabatan farmasi Universiti Islam Antarabangsa (UIA). Saya menunggu waktu sesuai untuk mendaftar produk ini yang bermanfaat untuk sapuan pada tubuh bagi melancarkan peredaran darah,” katanya.
Norazlan berkata, mereka yang mengalami bengkak, salah urat atau sakit sendi disyor menggunakan minyak sapu itu kerana ia membantu memulihkan penyakit berkenaan.

Leech Info

KITA mungkin jijik atau geli melihat haiwan yang bernama lintah. Namun di sebalik semua itu tersimpan manfaat yang begitu besar di dunia perubatan moden.

Menurut kajian, lintah dijadikan ubat untuk merawat pesakit dan melancarkan peredaran darah manusia.

Lintah atau nama saintifiknya Hirudo medicinali dikenali sebagai sumber perubatan bermula di pusat pelatih perubatan di Jerman. dikatakan,setiap tahun kira-kira 250000 ekor lintah digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah pendarahan dan juga digunakan dalam pembedahan plastik.

Terbukti kaedah rawatan dengan menggunakan lintah ini adalah sejak abad pertengahan lagi. pada masa itu, pesakit yang mengalami masalah pada sendi lutut akan merasa lebih selesa apabila melekatkan lintah pada luka mereka selama beberapa minggu. Kini, lintah diakui sebagai pembantu manusia. Di kerongkong tempat isapannya terdapat tiga rahang yang berbentuk seperti

setengah gergaji yang dihiasi sampai 100 gigi kecil. Mengambil masa selama 30 minit lintah untuk menyedut darah dan didapati sebanyak 15 ml darah yang diisapnya. Darah tersebut sudah cukup untuk menampung hidupnya selama setengah tahun (6 bulan).

Dalam air liur lintah mengandungi zat aktif yang dianggarkan terdapat 15 unsur, di antaranya zat yang terkandung dalam putih telur “hirudin” yang bermanfaat untuk melicinkan perjalanan darah dan ia juga mengandung “penisilin”.

Lintah juga digunakan sebagai ubat kepada penyakit skizofrenia maupun depresi, juga untuk merangsang mata, mengempiskan lidah bengkak, dan meringankan rasa sakit usus buntu serta perdarahan.

Kemampuan lintah ini menarik perhatian Manfred Roth. Maka, sejak sepuluh tahun lalu ahli zoology dan pecinta haiwan “haus” darah ini menjadi pengelola dan satu-satunya pengimport lintah di Jerman. Ia membiakan binatang ini pada bekas-bekas kaca.

Lintah peliharaannya diletakkan di antara tumbuhan air, seperti bunga teratai, di kolam berair jernih dengan pengawasan kebersihan yang rapi.

Sekurang-kurangnya ada 19 kolam tempat pemeliharaan. Tahun ini saja dihasilkan 100000 ekor lintah untuk dipasarkan kepada doktor, klinik dan tabib.

Kerana keupayaannya tadi, dalam Bahasa Inggris seorang tabib pada Abad Pertengahan dianggap sebagai leechers. Orang Teuton (Jerman kuno) mengartikan leech hampir sama artinya dengan kata “penyembuh”.

Dhanvantari, salah seorang dewi India, dalam Ayurveda digambarkan memegang seekor lintah di salah satu dari empat tangannya.

Jadi, haiwan yang menakutkan kerana ia menghisap darah ini menyimpan sejuta rahsia yang sangat bermanfaat kepada manusia.

Menurut pengguna lintah sebagai tujuan perubatan cara menggunakannya adalah setelah digunakan mestilah dibuang kembali ke dalam sawah kerana dikuatiri akan terkena jangkitan seperti hiv semasa merawat pesakit.

Model perniagaan lintah dalam rawatan moden

Lintah kini adalah sebagai punca pendapatan kepada segolongan usahawan yang mengusahakan projek lintah ini. Terdetik dalam hati saya bahawa model perniagaan lintah ini mampu memberi suatu pulangan yang lumayan bila kena pada cara penternakkannya
dan sentiasa ada “supplier”. Saya mengambil inisiatif ini untuk mengumpulkan segala artikel yang ada mengenai lintah ini yang saya ambil di forum-forum dan saya satukan semua untuk rujukan anda di masa hadapan dan saya akan update dari masa ke semasa
dan saya harap tak ada isi ciplak hak cipta lagi kali ini. Dalam penternakkan lintah ini saya ingin menekankan beberapa aspek penting yang perlu diambil oleh penternak lintah iaitu:

Keperluan Tanah dan Iklim

Penyediaan Tanah

Kualiti air


Penjagaan dan Pemakanan


Harga bagi induk boleh mencapai sekitar RM 300.00/kg tidak termasuk kos penghantaran. Benih pula berharga sekitar RM0.60/ekor. Makanan bagi lintah ialah darah. oleh sebab itu belut adalah makanan terbaik bagi lintah. Harga belut adalah sekitar RM20.00/kg. Ini adalah harga anggaran dimana harga anak benih lintah yang ditawarkan sekarang minimum 1000 - 5000 ekor = RM 0.50/ekor dan 5001 ke atas boleh lah dapat dalam RM0.40/ekor

Kos untuk kolam

1. palong konkrit…..RM 80.00 /pcs…..dlm satu palong boleh muat dlm 2000 ekor anak lintah.(palong boleh cari kat hardware)

2. tangki air hitam….RM290.00 /pcs…dlm tu boleh masuk 3000 ekor anak.

3. kolam batu konkrit…RM 2000.00 / kolam….boleh masuk dlm10000 ekor ank>bukak dlm10 x 30 kaki

4. kolam tanah..RM10,000.00 / kolam.

boleh tengok gambar kolam sy kat web site:

Pembiakkan lintah

Seekor lintah bila matang boleh betelor dan menetas sehingga 350-380 ekor anak dan cara pembiakkan tak susah, bila dia banyak makan lagi cepat dia bertelor.

Pemasaran, Syarikat yang terbesar yang mengambil lintah-lintah ini adalah Art Soulist Sdn Bhd dengan cara contract farming, laman webnyer Selain daripada syarikat Art Soulist Sdn Bhd yang satu-satunya company besar yang mengambil lintah-lintah ini, anda juga boleh menjual lintah-lintah tersebut pada individu perseorangan atau mana-mana company kecil yang ingin mendapatkan benih, induk dan sebagainya. Saya terbaca berita dari Berita dari Bernama pada 17 Julai 07 yang lalu iaitu lintah dijual RM9.3juta per ton, ini bermakna 1 kg lintah syarikat Art Soulist Sdn Bhd akan jual RM9300 ke luar negara dan mereka ambil daripada pembekal cuma RM60 per kg.

Jenis lintah yang diternak adalah lintah hijau & coklat, akan tetapi lintah hijau lebih gemar diternak oleh pengusaha-pengusaha ini kerana faktor kualitinya yang lebih bermutu berbanding yang coklat. Tempoh matang lintah ialah dalam masa 6 bulan andai anda bela dari kecil. Risiko lintah untuk mati & penyakit memang amat kurang melainkan kawalan air yang tidak memuaskan, air masin dan jentik-jentik.

Harus anda ketahui bahawa lintah Malaysia bukannya spesis Hirudo medicinalis tetapi Hirudinaria manillensis (kedua-duanya dari kumpulan Hirudin). Tapi keduanya untuk “medicinal purpose” juga. Bezanya Hirudo medicinalis ni terdapat di Eropah, saiz kecil dan semakin pupus. Hirudinaria manillensis ni atau Buffalo leech (Lintah Kerbau) yang jenis suka melekat pada kerbau.

Natural Hirudin

1. Natural Hirudin Lyophilized Powder (NHLP)
NHLP is made from materials of leech saliva by using the modern high-tech separated and purified technology. It is a low-molecular-weight polypeptide which is composed of 65~66 amino acids, and it has great activity in inhibiting thrombin, expanding blood vessel and lowering down blood pressure. NHLP is the most powerful natural anticoagulant known up to now and can directly penetrate the barrier of the blood vessel. It is suitable for producing injection, capsule, oral liquid and cosmetic.

2. Polypeptide Hirudin Powder (PHP)
PHP is made from fresh and hygienic materials of leech by using modern high-tech processing technology. It contains 18 bioactive polypeptides and can be easily absorbed by the human body. PHP holds the effective bioactive component of natural leech and has the efficacy of preventing diseases. It is the ideal material of manufacturing pharmacy capsule and drink which can prevent & cure heart and brain diseases.

3. Polypeptide Hirudin Liquid (PHL)
PHL is made from materials of leech saliva by using modern high-tech processing technology. It holds hirudin, prostaglandin, plasmin and several bioactive materials which are extracted from the saliva of leech. PHL is suit for producing oral liquid.

4. Protein Nutritious Congee (PNC)
PNC is made from the materials of proteins which is extract from leech by mixing with corn. The amino acids and polypeptide in PNC can promote the absorption of nutriment. Taking PNC with water blow 60℃ for a long time is good for health and can promote the digestion of intestines and stomach.

Tuesday, January 22, 2008

The most powerful known anticoagulant is also the best known leech enzyme :

Dilation of blood vessels necessary for a normal erection depends on a substance called nitric oxide. Enhances sexual performance for men and sexual health for women by maximizing blood flow to your sexual organs. Boosts your own nitric oxide levels, which maximizes blood flow to where you need it most.

Hirudin is an anticoagulant “blood thinner” peptide that occurs naturally is the salivary glands of the Medical.

Vasodilator. The leech vasodilator is a histamine-like substance and is found in the salivary cells. The release of histamines are a requirement for achieving orgasm. Histamine release during sexual activity is what causes the "sex flush" and may help improve sexual functioning by helping with the lengthening of orgasms and also more intense sexual enjoyment and pleasure.

Pheromone is a natural sexual attractant the body produces to subconsciously attract the opposite sex. This pheromone natural attractant can also contribute to intense love making during sexual foreplay and sexual intercourse . Chemicals in men's bodies can cause their female sex partners to be more fertile, have more regular menstrual cycles and milder menopause.

Uses Of Leech in this centuries

The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis has been used for centuries in the treatment of a variety diseases. The use of leeches for bloodletting reached its height in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and then began to give way to modern medicine. However, just when the leech was about to disappear from medical practice, new therapies using leeches emerged. Plastic surgeons have been using medicinal leeches to remove blood from post-operative occlusions, a procedure that increases the success of tissue transplants, reduction mammoplasty and the surgical re-attachment of amputated extremeties and digits by reducing the frequency of necrosis.

It has long been common knowledge that the host's blood continues to flow from the wound for a long time after the leech has ceased to feed. Indeed, it was shown a century ago (4) that extracts of the medicinal leech contain a substance, hirudin, which prevents blood clotting. Hirudin was isolated and characterized as a protein (5). The pharmacological effects of this potent anticoagulant in animals and in man (6, 7, 9) have also been extensively investigated. The advent of recombinant DNA technology opened the way to, and revived interest in the commercial production of hirudin.

Recombinant hirudin has been produced by major pharmaceutical companies and recent studies have shown that it effectively prevents thrombosis in several animal species and in man (9,10). The anticoagulant properties of hirudin are generally attributed to the inhibition of thrombin and consequently the blocking of fibrin formation. The beneficial effect of the medicinal leech of microsurgery, described above, could not, therefore, be due to hirudin, since thrombi in the microcirculation are usually due to platelet aggregation which is not inhibited by hirudin.

Apart from hirudin, saliva of the medicinal leech has been found to contain additional proteins, eglin, hyaluronidase, collagenase and apyrase (11, 12) and, in general, said publications (11, 12) disclose that leech saliva has platelet-aggregation inhibitory activity. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by leech saliva was also desceribed in references (13) and (14). Platelet aggregation inhibitory activity has been found also in the saliva of a number of blood-sucking anthropods, such as the bug Rhodnius prolixus (15) and the tick Ixodes dammini (16).

More Bout Leeches

arting from the anterior sucker is the jaw, the Pharynx which extends to the crop, which leads to the Intestinum, where it ends at the posterior sucker. The crop is a type of stomach that works like an expandable storage compartment. The crop allows a leech to store blood up to five times its body size; because of this ability to hold blood without the blood decaying, due to bacteria living inside the crop, medicinal leeches only need to feed two times a year.

It was long thought that bacteria in the gut carried on digestion for the leech instead of endogenous enzymes which are very low or absent in the intestine. Relatively recently it has been discovered that all leeches and leech species studied do produce endogenous intestinal exopeptidases which can unlink free terminal-end amino acids, one amino acid monomer at a time, from a gradually unwinding and degrading protein polymer. However, unzipping of the protein can start from either the amino (tail) or carboxyl (head) terminal-end of the protein molecule. It just so happens that the leech exopeptidase (arylamidases), possibly aided by proteases from endosymbiotic bacteria in the intestine, starts from the tail or amino protein, free-end, slowly but progressively removing many hundreds of individual terminal amino acids for resynthesis into proteins that constitute the leech. Since leeches lack endopeptidases, the mechanism of protein digestion can not follow the same sequence as it would in all other animals where exopeptidases act sequentially on peptides produced by the action of endopeptidases. Exopeptidases are especially prominent in the common North American worm-leech Erpobdella punctata. This evolutionary choice of exopeptic digestion in Hirudinea distinguishes these carnivorous clitellates from Oligochaeta.

Deficiency of digestive enzymes (except exopeptidases) but more importantly deficiency of vitamins, B complex for example, in leeches is compensated for by enzymes and vitamins produced by endosymbiotic microflora. In Hrudo medicinalis these supplementary factors are produced by an obligatory symbiotic relationship with a single bacterium species, Aeromonas hydrophila, which maintains itself in pure culture by secreting an antibiotic known to medicine since the 19th century, well before Fleming's 1929 discovery of penicillin. Non-bloodsucking leeches such as E. punctata are host to three bacterial symbionts, Pseudomonas sp., Aeromonas sp., and Klebsiella sp. (a slime producer). The bacteria are passed from parent to offspring in the cocoon as it is formed.

Wednesday, January 9, 2008

SEdikit Info Untuk Dikongsi sejenak..

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Annelida

Class: Clitellata

Order: Hirudinea

Family: Hirudidae

Genus: Hirudo

Species: H. medicinalis

Medicinal leeches are any of a group of several species of leeches but most commonly Hirudo medicinalis or the European Medical Leech.

General morphology follows that of most other leeches. Fully mature adults can be up to 20cm in length and are green, brown or greenish brown with a darker tone on the dorsal side and a lighter ventral side, the dorsal side also has a thin red stripe. These organisms have two suckers, one at each end, called the anterior and posterior sucker. The posterior is mainly used for leverage while the anterior sucker, consisting of the jaw and teeth, is where the feeding takes place. Medicinal leeches have three jaws (tripartite) that look like little saws, and on them are about 100 sharp teeth used to incise the host. The incision leaves a mark which is an inverted Y inside of a circle. After piercing the skin and injecting anti-coagulants (Hirudin) and anaesthetics they suck out blood. Large adults can consume up to 15 grams of blood in a single meal. Medicinal leeches are hermaphrodites which reproduce by sexual mating, laying eggs in clutches of up to 50 near (but not under) water, and in shaded, humid places.

Penternak Lintah ~

KUANTAN: Geli. Itulah ungkapan pertama yang terhambur keluar sebagai jawapan bila ditanya mengenai lintah, apatah lagi untuk memegang atau menternak hidupan yang banyak di kawasan paya dan sawah padi.

Bagi Norazlan Abd Rahman, 37, dari Kampung Jaya Gading, di sini, perasaan geli sudah lama berkubur daripada mindanya. Apa yang penting, kerja itu menghasilkan pendapatan lumayan.

Berbekalkan semangat kental dikongsi bersama rakannya, Mohd Zakaria Mahmud, 50, beliau kini berjaya membuka empat kolam menternak lintah untuk tujuan eksport.

Norazlan lepasan Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) berkata, lintah kini menjadi ternakan komersial berikutan permintaan tinggi untuk ramuan kosmetik dan perubatan.

Justeru , katanya, kebanyakan lintah yang diternak di negara ini dieksport ke luar negara terutama Taiwan dan Eropah yang dikenal pasti sebagai pasaran berpotensi bagi hidupan itu.

Beliau berkata, lintah mempunyai banyak spesies dan ia boleh didapati dengan mudah di negara ini terutama di kawasan paya dan sawah padi tempat kerbau berkubang.

Lintah ternak terdiri daripada lintah perut hijau dan lintah perut perang yang mendapat permintaan tinggi di pasaran.

Beliau berkata, lintah jenis berkenaan mampu mencecah harga antara RM40 hingga RM60 sekilogram bergantung pada saiz.

"Lintah jenis ini diternak sebagai ternakan komersial yang menguntungkan. Bagaimanapun, kaedah menternaknya bukan mudah kerana ia memerlukan penjagaan rapi seperti menternak ikan.

Norazlan berkata, di atas hamparan plastik berkenaan perlu ditabur pasir halus untuk hidupan ini bersembunyi daripada pemangsa.

"Penggunaan plastik dan pasir diperlukan supaya lintah tidak hilang ketika menuai, manakala pasir ialah tempat ia berlindung selain menyembunyikan diri daripada binatang pemangsa lain," katanya.

Katanya, lintah akan mencapai tempoh matang apabila berusia empat bulan dan ketika itu ia mula bertelur.

"Telur yang terhasil akan terlekat pada objek yang ada dalam air seperti tunggul kayu dan tumbuhan akuatik. Dalam sistem

kolam ternakan, batu-bata yang disusun empat segi seperti menara digunakan sebagai tempat mengumpul telur," katanya.

Norazlan berkata, lintah dikenali sebagai haiwan penghisap darah, justeru dalam sistem ternakan ini darah diperlukan sebagai makanan.

"Untuk mendapat bekalan darah, belut dijadikan makanan. Lintah akan mengejar belut berkenaan untuk menghisap darahnya. Lazimnya, 30 hingga 40 kilogram belut diperlukan untuk bekalan makanan 100 kilogram lintah," katanya.

Beliau berkata, bagi tujuan ternakan, dua kilogram benih lintah berkemampuan menghasilkan 100 kilogram lintah dewasa, dalam tempoh kira-kira enam bulan.

"Tetapi, bekalan benih agak kritikal kerana permintaan tinggi dan pengusaha hatcheri masih berkurangan.

"Tidak hairanlah harga benih lintah boleh mencecah sehingga RM300 sekilogram", kata Norazlan ketika membawa wartawan meninjau kolam ternakan lintahnya, baru-baru ini.

Sementara itu, Mohd Zakaria berkata, penggunaan lintah dalam perubatan kuno diamalkan sejak lama dulu terutama di kalangan masyarakat Cina.

Bagi masyarakat Melayu, katanya, lintah digunakan terhadap pesakit kepala, darah tinggi atau berkudis.

Lazimnya, beliau berkata, bahagian kepala akan ditoreh dan lintah dibiarkan menyedut darah kotor.

"Penggunaan lintah dalam perubatan amat penting dan mendapat sambutan ramai kerana ia dikatakan mengandungi `hirudin' yang mampu mencairkan darah.

"Selain itu , `histamin' yang ada pada lintah dikatakan mampu membesarkan saluran pembuluh darah sekali gus mampu mengurangkan serangan jantung," katanya.

FAKTA: Lintah

 Lintah yang diternak jenis lintah perut hijau dan lintah perut perang

 Harga lintah dewasa boleh mencecah antara RM40 hingga RM60 sekilogram mengikut saiz.

 Harga benih lintah pula boleh mencecah sehingga RM300 sekilogram.

 Darah belut menjadi makanan lintah.

 20 kilogram belut boleh menampung makanan lintah untuk tempoh enam bulan dan menghasilkan 100 kilogram lintah dewasa.

Sumber DIpetik dari Berita Harian.

Indicators For Therapeutic Use Of Leeches

1. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Leeches are generally useful on any
skin flap or other tissue suffering from impaired venous circulation. It is
prudent that a true venous congestion be diagnosed before using leeches
since they will not be helpful in cases of insufficient arterial inflow. Note,
also, that insufficient arterial supply could lead to infection from any
source, including leeches. The following criteria may help in diagnosing a
true venous problem in a flap:-

a. Skin colour dusky or bluish.
b. Capillary return bruskier than normal (note that areas of fixed
colouration are beyond salvage).
c. Pinprick response. Bleeding should be rapid and dark
d. History. Known problems with veins at operation, either in the pedile or
at the site of a micro-vascular anastomosis.
2. Oedema. Increasingly leeches are being used to treat severely
oedematous patients.

What do leeches feed off of?

Many leeches attack other worms or snails and digest away the muscle instead of the body fluid. Some leeches are predators and eat small larvae and worms. Some leeches are predator and parasites.

They eat snail meat sometimes and they suck turtle or frog flood other times. Other species of leeches feed on insect, frogs, salamanders, fish, and birds as sources of food.

Leeches are now used for medical use.

Doctors are now using leeches for medical purposes. These leeches are being applied on humans body tissue so they can remove exsesive blood lost . These parasites prevents the tissue from dying off, and it allows the body to reestablish good blood flow to the reattached parts.

What happen to a leech after it eats?

As the leech feeds its body swells tremendously and they may increase their body weight nearly five times. This allows them to survive long period of time between feeding. And some leeches may live a whole hear between feeding.

Can leeches be infectious or deadly?

The answer to that is yes this parasite can do both. A leech normally takes blood from their host, which can cause an a infection and sometimes death to their victims throughout the esessive lost of blood or bodily fluid . The wound can also get infected from bacteria that the leeches expose or the water that gets into the wound.

Description feeding uses to human

These segmented worms have two main suckers. The front sucker contains the mouth while the rear sucker is used to crawl. Leeches are also known as good swimmer.